With the continuing advances in sequencing technologies and the availability of thousands of distinct human genomes, we are fast approaching the day when ´´personal genomes´´ become a standard study measure and a routine component of personal health records. In Genetic Variation: Methods and Protocols , expert researchers address the rising importance of genome variation, both at the level of the individual and in population-based studies of disease, with a collection of detailed protocols reflecting the nature and impact of genetic variation on human phenotypes. The contributions cover a majority of the most important forms of genetic variation studied today, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertions/deletion (indels), copy number variation (CNVs), variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs), mitochondrial variation, mobile elements, and epigenetic variation. As a volume in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology (TM) series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Convenient and cutting-edge, Genetic Variation: Methods and Protocols aims to bring bench scientists, clinicians, and bioinformaticians together in order to aid progress toward a greater understanding of the full impact of variation on human health and disease. ´´Your genome is an email attachment´´ What a difference a few years can make? In 2001, to a global fanfare, the completion of the frst draft sequence of the human genome was announced. This had been a Herculean effort, involving thousands of researchers and millions of dollars. Today, a project to re-sequence 1,000 genomes is well underway, and within a year or two, your own ´´personal genome´´ is likely to be available for a few thousand pounds, a price that will undoubtedly decrease further. We are fast approaching the day when your genome will be available as an email attachment (about 4 Mb). The key to this feat is the fact that any two human genomes are more than 99% identical, so rather than representing every base, there is really only a requirement to store the 1% of variable sequence judged against a common reference genome. This brings us directly to the focus of this edition of Methods in Molecular Biology, Genetic Variation. The human genome was once the focus of biology, but now individual genome var- tion is taking the center stage. This new focus on individual variation ultimately democ- tizes biology, offering individuals insight into their own phenotype. But these advances also raise huge concerns of data misuse, misinterpretation, and misunderstanding. The immediacy of individual genomes also serves to highlight our relative ignorance of human genetic variation, underlining the need for more studies of the nature and impact of genetic variation on human phenotypes.
Like its preceding editions, this atlas is an indispensable guide to the field of neurology, featuring the most clinically essential images and figures. Chapters offer insight and research written by deeply practiced, knowledgeable neurologists that is supplemented with detailed imagery, tables, algorithms, and delineative drawings. Topics covered include developmental and genetic diseases, neuroendocrine disorders, critical care neurology, cerebrovascular disease, dementias, behavioral neurology, neuro-oncology, movement disorders, epilepsy, neuromuscular diseases, infectious diseases, neuroimmunology, neurotoxic disorders, and headache. The authors also delve into specific issues currently prevalent in neuroscientific research, including Alzheimer´s disease, dementia, Machado-Joseph disease, Huntington´s disease, and brain scanning with PET and fMRI. The Atlas of Clinical Neurology, 4th Edition serves as a comprehensive and premier visual resource for neurologists.
This detailed volume explores essential protocols for the study of Proteus mirabilis which, despite its genetic relatedness to species such as E. coli , often requires specialized handling techniques. This opportunistic bacterial pathogen, most often known as a causative agent of complicated urinary tract infection, is addressed in chapters from global experts in the field. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Proteus mirabilis : Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal guide for researchers intrigued by the renewed appreciation for the medical impact and environmental adaptability of this organism, coupled with continued fascination for its dynamic behavior.
von Recklinghausen syndrome is a complex genetic disorder that range from mild hardly noticed condition to an extremely terrifying progressive disorder with numerous complications and serious disfigurement of the body caused by generalized or huge growth of tumors. The condition was named after Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen who published in 1882 a detailed description of the disorder including information from previous literature. However, the condition has not been well described or documented in Iraqi children despite it is believed that the condition was observed. The main aim of this book is to describe a unique case of von Recklinghausen syndrome in an Iraqi child associated with right sided basal ganglion abnormalities on brain MRI. A second aim of this book is to describe the early historic documentation of the syndrome in the literature.
Predicting the future for financial gain is a difficult, sometimes profitable activity. The focus of this book is the application of biologically inspired algorithms (BIAs) to financial modelling.In a detailed introduction, the authors explain computer trading on financial markets and the difficulties faced in financial market modelling. Then Part I provides a thorough guide to the various bioinspired methodologies neural networks, evolutionary computing (particularly genetic algorithms and grammatical evolution), particle swarm and ant colony optimization, and immune systems. Part II brings the reader through the development of market trading systems. Finally, Part III examines real-world case studies where BIA methodologies are employed to construct trading systems in equity and foreign exchange markets, and for the prediction of corporate bond ratings and corporate failures.The book was written for those in the finance community who want toapply BIAs in financial modelling, and for computer scientists who want an introduction to this growing application domain.
Turing´s connectionism provides a detailed and in-depth analysis of Turing´s almost forgotten ideas on connectionist machines. In a little known paper entitled ´´Intelligent Machinery´´, Turing already investigated connectionist models as early as 1948. Unfortunately, his work was dismissed by his employer as a ´´schoolboy essay´´ and went unpublished until 1968, 14 years after his death. In this book, Christof Teuscher analyzes all aspects of Turing´s ´´unorganized machines´´. Turing himself also proposed a sort of genetic algorithm to train the networks. This idea has been resumed by the author and genetic algorithms are used to build and train Turing´s unorganized machines. Teuscher´s work starts from Turing´s initial ideas, but importantly goes beyond them. Many new kinds of machines and new aspects are considered, e.g., hardware implementation, analysis of the complex dynamics of the networks, hypercomputation, and learning algorithms.
This detailed collection gathers both established and recent technical procedures to study the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) complexes in a wide range of biological systems: Archaea, A. thaliana , U. maydis , S. cerevisiae , S. pombe , C. elegans , D. melanogaster , and mammalian cells. Opening with a section on imaging techniques, the book continues with chapters covering biochemical approaches presenting strategies for production and characterization of recombinant ESCRT proteins, or of specific ESCRT protein domains, as well as genetic and proteomic experimental approaches. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters include introduction to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, The ESCRT Complexes: Methods and Protocols serves as a compact guide for researchers interested in establishing an integrated approach to investigate the ESCRT machinery functions in cell biology.
Fundamentals of Forensic DNA Typing ? John M. Butler, Ph.D., NIST Fellow and Group Leader at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) ´´There is perhaps no individual better suited to author a foundational survey of forensic DNA typing than John Butler. As with past editions, Butler?s knowledge, along with his organizational and communication skills make Fundamentals of Forensic DNA Typing a must read for students, forensic practitioners and trial attorneys. This text provides the reader with insightful and understandable explanations necessary to comprehend the underpinnings of forensic DNA analysis. It continues in the tradition of its predecessors as the premier textbook on the forensic DNA subject.´´ - Richard Saferstein, Ph.D. Author and Forensic Science Consultant ´´Dr. John Butler has a gift for breaking through jargon and clutter and making the science of forensic DNA typing understandable. Fundamentals of Forensic DNA Typing is a masterful work that will continue to set Butler apart from others who take on this important subject.´´ - Stephen Patrick Hogan, M.A., J.D. Adjunct Professor of Biological Science & Criminal Justice, State University of New York at Albany ´´I have used John Butler?s book on forensic DNA typing in classrooms and workshops since the first edition appeared in 2001. The wonderful thing about this book is the clarity of its explanations and its expansive content. ? For anyone interested in getting the clearest and most up to date information on the field of DNA analysis, there is no other book that comes close in terms of content or clarity.´´ - Bruce McCord, Ph.D. Professor of Analytical and Forensic Chemistry, International Forensic Research Institute, Florida International University John Butler, bestselling author of Forensic DNA Typing, now applies his expertise on the subject of DNA analysis into an introductory textbook. Fundamentals of Forensic DNA Typing walks students step-by-step through the DNA analysis process beginning with collection of evidence at a crime scene to the statistical interpretation of the results. Also included are brief discussions of such news worthy topics as victim identification from the September 11, 2001 attacks, the identification of the remains of the Romanovs, the last Russian Royal family, and the O.J. Simpson case. New applications, such as genetic genealogy and tracing domestic pet hairs to perpetrators, are also detailed. With its clear and understandable style and extensive list of online ancillaries and study aids, this textbook will make the subject accessible to students in forensic science courses worldwide. Includes a glossary with over 400 terms for quick reference of unfamiliar terms as well as an acronym guide to decipher the DNA dialect Continues in the style of Forensic DNA Typing, Second Edition, with high-profile cases addressed in D.N.A.Boxes-- ´´Data, Notes & Applications´´ sections throughout Ancillaries include: instructor manual Web site, with tailored set of 1000+ PowerPoint slides (including figures), links to online training websites and a test bank with key http://www.elsevierdirect.com/companions/9780123749994 Shelving Classification: DNA Technology / Forensic Science
The Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii Brandt 1869 is the most widely farmed sturgeon species. Continuing from Volume 1, which focuses on the biology of the species, the present Volume 2 in turn examines farming aspects. It is divided into six parts, the first of which deals with reproduction and early ontogenesis, i.e. reproductive cycles, controlled reproduction, sperm cryoconservation, and weaning of larvae. The second covers the growing phase with a focus on food and feeding (management, fish meal replacement, potential endocrine disruptions, usefulness of prebiotics and immunostimulants, and nitrogen excretion). Production-related data are the focus of the third part and include: characteristics (countries, structures of production, evolution in production, economic features) of the gross production of the species (meat and caviar) worldwide, a method for assessing the quality of caviars, off-flavors management, and an example of production of fingerlings for restocking. Part four addresses selected long-term management issues: genetic variability of brood stocks, genome manipulation and sex control, and the advantages of hybrids. The next three chapters constitute the fifth part, which is devoted to health status (immunology and welfare). In closing, the absence of ecological risks of introducing the species in non-native waters is shown using two long-term documented examples (Russia and France). Three methodological chapters round out the volume, covering: in vitro incubation of ovarian follicles, a richly illustrated library of echographies and photos, and a detailed presentation of oxygen demand studies.