This book provides up-to-date descriptions of the various areas of applied bioinformatics, from the analysis of sequence, literature, and functional data to the function and evolution of organisms. Bioinformatics is a relatively new field of research. It evolved from the requirement to process, characterize, and apply the information being produced by DNA sequencing technology. The production of DNA sequence data continues to grow exponentially. At the same time, improved bioinformatics such as faster DNA sequence search methods have been combined with increasingly powerful computer systems to process this information. Methods are being developed for the ever more detailed quantification of gene expression, providing an insight into the function of the newly discovered genes, while molecular genetic tools provide a link between these genes and heritable traits. Genetic tests are now available to determine the likelihood of suffering specific ailments and can predict how plant cultivars may respond to the environment. The steps in the translation of the genetic blueprint to the observed phenotype is being increasingly understood through proteome, metabolome and phenome analysis, all underpinned by advances in bioinformatics. Bioinformatics is becoming increasingly central to the study of biology, and a day at a computer can often save a year or more in the laboratory. The volume is intended for graduate-level biology students as well as researchers who wish to gain a better understanding of applied bioinformatics and who wish to use bioinformatics technologies to assist in their research. The volume would also be of value to bioinformatics developers, particularly those from a computing background, who would like to understand the application of computational tools for biological research. Each chapter would include a comprehensive introduction giving an overview of the fundamentals, aimed at introducing graduate students and researchers from diverse backgrounds to the field and bring them up-to-date on the current state of knowledge. To accommodate the broad range of topics in applied bioinformatics, chapters have been grouped into themes: gene and genome analysis, molecular genetic analysis, gene expression analysis, protein and proteome analysis, metabolome analysis, phenome data analysis, literature mining and bioinformatics tool development. Each chapter and theme provides an introduction to the biology behind the data describes the requirements for data processing and details some of the methods applied to the data to enhance biological understanding.
This book offers a comprehensive introduction to using Mathematica and the Wolfram Language for Bioinformatics. The chapters build gradually from basic concepts and the introduction of the Wolfram Language and coding paradigms in Mathematica, to detailed worked examples derived from typical research applications using Wolfram Language code. The coding examples range from basic sequence analysis, accessing genomic databases, differential gene expression, and machine learning implementations to time series analysis of longitudinal omics experiments, multi-omics integration and building dynamic interactive bioinformatics tools using the Wolfram Language. The topics address the daily bioinformatics needs of a broad audience: experimental users looking to understand and visualize their data, beginner bioinformaticians acquiring coding expertise in providing biological research solutions, and practicing expert bioinformaticians working on omics who wish to expand their toolset to include the Wolfram Language.
Presenting an area of research that intersects with and integrates diverse disciplines, including molecular biology, applied informatics, and statistics, among others, Bioinformatics for Omics Data: Methods and Protocols collects contributions from expert researchers in order to provide practical guidelines to this complex study. Divided into three convenient sections, this detailed volume covers central analysis strategies, standardization and data-management guidelines, and fundamental statistics for analyzing Omics profiles, followed by a section on bioinformatics approaches for specific Omics tracks, spanning genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome levels, as well as an assortment of examples of integrated Omics bioinformatics applications, complemented by case studies on biomarker and target identification in the context of human disease. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology™ series format, chapters contain introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.
The existence of genes for RNA molecules not coding for proteins (ncRNAs) has been recognized since the 1950´s, but until recently, aside from the critically important ribosomal and transfer RNA genes, most focus has been on protein coding genes. However, a long series of striking discoveries, from RNA´s ability to carry out catalytic function, to discovery of riboswitches, microRNAs and other ribo-regulators performing critical tasks in essentially all living organisms, has created a burgeoning interest in this primordial component of the biosphere. However, the structural characteristics and evolutionary constraints on RNA molecules are very different from those of proteins, necessitating development of a completely new suite of informatic tools to address these challenges. In RNA Sequence, Structure, Function: Computational and Bioinformatic Methods , expert researchers in the field describe a substantial and relevant fraction of these methodologies from both practical and computational/algorithmic perspectives. Focusing on both of these directions addresses both the biologist interested in knowing more about RNA bioinformatics as well as the bioinformaticist interested in more detailed aspects of the algorithms. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, the chapters include the kind of detailed description and implementation advice that is crucial for getting optimal results. Thorough and intuitive, RNA Sequence, Structure, Function: Computational and Bioinformatic Methods aids scientists in continuing to study key methods and principles of RNA bioinformatics.
This textbook describes recent advances in genomics and bioinformatics and provides numerous examples of genome data analysis that illustrate its relevance to real world problems and will improve the reader´s bioinformatics skills. Basic data preprocessing with normalization and filtering, primary pattern analysis, and machine learning algorithms using R and Python are demonstrated for gene-expression microarrays, genotyping microarrays, next-generation sequencing data, epigenomic data, and biological network and semantic analyses. In addition, detailed attention is devoted to integrative genomic data analysis, including multivariate data projection, gene-metabolic pathway mapping, automated biomolecular annotation, text mining of factual and literature databases, and integrated management of biomolecular databases. The textbook is primarily intended for life scientists, medical scientists, statisticians, data processing researchers, engineers, and other beginners in bioinformatics who are experiencing difficulty in approaching the field. However, it will also serve as a simple guideline for experts unfamiliar with the new, developing subfield of genomic analysis within bioinformatics.
Information theory and inference, taught together in this exciting textbook, lie at the heart of many important areas of modern technology - communication, signal processing, data mining, machine learning, pattern recognition, computational neuroscience, bioinformatics and cryptography. The book introduces theory in tandem with applications. Information theory is taught alongside practical communication systems such as arithmetic coding for data compression and sparse-graph codes for error-correction. Inference techniques, including message-passing algorithms, Monte Carlo methods and variational approximations, are developed alongside applications to clustering, convolutional codes, independent component analysis, and neural networks. Uniquely, the book covers state-of-the-art error-correcting codes, including low-density-parity-check codes, turbo codes, and digital fountain codes - the twenty-first-century standards for satellite communications, disk drives, and data broadcast. Richly illustrated, filled with worked examples and over 400 exercises, some with detailed solutions, the book is ideal for self-learning, and for undergraduate or graduate courses. It also provides an unparalleled entry point for professionals in areas as diverse as computational biology, financial engineering and machine learning.